Natural disaster resistance
Resilience to the effects of natural disasters, in extreme forms of drought; water (flooding, tsunami); wild fires; earthquakes (and volcanic activity); and destructive wind speeds (typhoon, hurricane) can be designed and implemented.
Approaches are diverse: from prediction and mitigation, to resilient and appropriate design and management. This includes sustainable land management (SLM) and coastal management in the non-built environment and appropriate building materials, methods and architectural design in built environments.
Prediction can be meterological observation: weather and climate modelling; identifying high risk zones; forecasting; early warning systems; and geological observation e.g. monitoring seismic activity, water levels and flows. It can also include identifying natural geographic features and phenomena such as plate tectonics and volcanic activity.
Mitigation can be evacuation plans and provision of emergency services; aid relief methodologies; relief programs and organisations; as well as designing flood catchment and flood defenses such as barriers and coastal defences.
Many prediction and mitigation approaches are large-scale and undertaken at national government level, whilst aid relief is carried out at a range of scales, from small and specialist NGOs and charities, to international NGOs and refugee aid, relief and rehabilitation programs.