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Aquaculture is the growing of human food, both plant and animal, in water. It may also refer to the conscious creation of aquatic environments.

Current fish farming has much in common with battery chicken egg production, and intensive salmon farms create ecological damage with the use of chemicals to control parasites, and pellet food sourced from species taken from wider seas. In terms of ecological and energy efficiency, greater productivity can be achieved in a sustainable way by creating beneficial relationships between aquaculture and other elements in the landscape, eating lower down the food chain (e.g plants or omnivorous fish), and using polyculture to 'fill as many niches' as possible.